Solitons and Soliton Collisions 
by 
The localized excitations propagating in a system with constant velocity and colliding with each other without change in their shapes are called solitons. During the collision of solitons the solution cannot be represented as a linear combination of two soliton solutions but after the collision solitons recover their shapes and the only result of collision is a phase shift.
SineGordon Solitons and Soliton Collisions
In these pages we present the sineGordon solitons and their collisions.
The sineGordon equation
plays an important role in many branches of physics. It provides one of the simplest models of the unified field theory, can be found in the theory of dislocations in metals, in the theory of Josephson junctions and so on. It can be used also in interpreting certain biological processes like DNA dynamics.
MultiSoliton Solutions: In the present pages, we demonstrate the derivation of the multisoliton solutions to the sineGordon equation with the use of Backlund transformations. Animation and 3D graphics help to visualize one (Kink, Antikink), two (KK, KAk, Breather), three soliton solutions and the basic properties of soliton collisions.
Pendulum Model: The soliton solutions to the sineGordon equation and soliton collisions are visualized for the system of coupled pendulums, having the sineGordon equation as the continuous analog.
Elastic Ribbon Model: The multisoliton solutions to the sineGordon equation are discussed in the frame of the elastic ribbon model, which allows the consideration of solitons as the charged particles. For the presented animations we tried to choose the parameters in a way to demonstrate, in the clearest form, the charge conservation law.
Maple worksheets (code):
Test examples: A.E. Miroshnichenko, A.A. Vasiliev, S.V. Dmitriev A Maple package for the derivation of multisoliton solutions to the sineGordon equation using the Backlund transformations.
Discreteness Effects: Effects of inelastic collisions in a weakly discrete sineGordon system are presented. Existence and significance of the separatrix solutions and stochastic instability layers are underlined.
Multifield solitons: In the present pages we introduce a model which supports stable periodic structures and multifield solitons. Usually solitons are described by a single continuous function. The Nfield soliton is described by N functions. We construct multifield generalized continuum models to obtain them. You can see links for more information about generalized continuum models (Cosserat, micropolar, gradienttype, nonlocal, etc.).

Java Applet: Discrete breather animation (Link to MaxPlanckInstitut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden) 
Rotobreathers in underdamped Josephson junction ladders, representation in the framework of pendulum mechanical analogy are given on this page.
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