* Swedish

There are six plosives:
        Symbol          Word            Transcription

        p               pil             pi:l

        b               bil             bi:l

        t               tal             tA:l

        d               dal             dA:l

        k               kal             kA:l

        g               g?s             go:s
There are six fricatives:
        f               fil             fi:l

        v               v?r             vo:r

        s               sil             si:l

        S               sjuk            S}:k    (front and back allophones)

        h               hal             hA:l

        C               tjock           COk     (not syllable-final)
There are six sonorant consonants (nasals, liquids and semivowels):
        m               mil             mi:l

        n               n?l             no:l

        N               ring            rIN     (not syllable-initial)

        r               ris             ri:s

        l               l?s             l2:s

        j               jag             jA:g
There are nine long and nine short vowels.

Long vowels (followed by short consonant):

        i:              vit             vi:t

        e:              vet             ve:t

        E:              s?l             sE:l

        y:              syl             sy:l

        }:              hus             h}:s

        2:              f?l             f2:l

        u:              sol             su:l

        o:              h?l             ho:l

        A:              hal             hA:l
Short vowels (followed by long consonant):
        I               vitt            vIt

        e               vett            vet

        E               r?tt            rEt

        Y               bytt            bYt

        u0              buss            bu0s

        2               f?ll            f2l

        U               bott            bUt

        O               h?ll            hOl

        a               hall            hal
There are also two pre-r allophones (long and short) of /E/ and /2/ (see below).

The following important allophonic variants occur in Swedish which require separate symbolic representation:

        {:              h?r             h{:r    pre-r allophone of E:

        9:              f?r             f9:r            "       2:

        {               herr            h{r             "       E

        9               f?rr            f9r             "       2

        @               pojken          pOjk@n  schwa vowel allophone

        rt              hjort           jUrt    retroflex consonant, not initial*

        rd              bord            bu:rd           "

        rn              barn            bA:rn           "

        rs              fors            fOrs            "

        rl              karl            kA:rl           "
* in cases where the dental consonants do not change into retroflexes, they are transcribed using the separator sign (ASCII 45): r-t, r-d.

Swedish has two contrasting tonemes, but only in stressed syllables. Tone 1 is indicated by the ordinary stress mark, Tone 2 by a doubled stress mark, e.g.

stress and toneme 1     anden           "and@n          (the duck)      

stress and toneme 2     anden           ""and@n         (the spirit)

UCL Phonetics and Linguistics home page, University College London home page.

Maintained by J.C. Wells. Created 1995 09 20. Last modified 1998 07 01 (note on tonemes corrected)

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