* Norwegian

There are six plosives:
Symbol          Word                    Transcription

        p               hopp                    hOp

        b               labb                    lAb

        t               lat                     lA:t

        d               ladd                    lAd

        k               takk                    tAk

        g               tagg                    tAg
There are six fricatives:
        f               fin                     fi:n

        v               vin                     vi:n

        s               lass                    lAs

        S               skyt                    Sy:t

        C               kino                    Ci:nu   (not syllable-final)

        j               gi                      ji:

        h               ha                      hA:
There are five sonorant consonants (nasals, liquids, trills)
        m               lam                     lAm

        n               vann                    vAn

        N               sang                    sAN

        l               fall                    fAl

        r               pr?v                    pr2:v
There are 9 long vowels:
        i:              vin                     vi:n

        e:              sen                     se:n

        {:              v?r                     v{:r

        A:              hat                     hA:t

        y:              lyn                     ly:n

        2:              s?t                     s2:t

        O:              v?t                     vO:t

        u:              bok                     bu:k

        }:              lun                     l}:n
and nine short vowels:
        i               vind                    vin

        e               send                    sen

        {               v?rt                    v{rt

        A               hatt                    hAt

        y               lynne                   lyne

        2               s?tt                    s2t

        O               v?tt                    vOt

        u               bukk                    buk

        }               lund                    l}n
There are seven diphthongs:
        {i              vei                     v{i

        2y              h?y                     h2y

        A}              sau                     sA}

        Ai              kai                     kAi

        Oy              konvoy                  kunvOy

        }i              hui                     h}i

        ui              hoi                     hui
In addition there are important allophonic variants for which the transcription has been agreed:
        rt              hardt                   hArt    (retroflex t)

        rd              verdi                   v{rdi:  (retroflex d)

        rl              ?rlig                   {:rlig  (retroflex l)

        rn              garn                    gA:rn   (retroflex n)

        rL              bl?                     brLO:   (retroflex flap)
In cases where the dental consonants do not change into retroflexes, they are transcribed using the separator sign (ASCII 45), e.g.
        r-d             verdig                  v{r-di
Norwegian has two contrasting tonemes, but only in stressed syllables. Tone 1 is indicated by the ordinary stress mark, Tone 2 by a doubled stress mark, e.g.
stress and toneme 1     bшnder                  "b2n@r          (peasants)      

stress and toneme 2     bшnner                  ""b2n@r         (beans)

UCL Phonetics and Linguistics home page, University College London home page.

Maintained by J.C. Wells. Created 1995 09 20. Last modified 1998 07 02 (correction to one transcribed word)

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