* Dutch

The plosives are p b t d k (g):
        Symbol          Word                    Transcription

        p               pak                     pAk

        b               bak                     bAk

        t               tak                     tAk

        d               dak                     dAk

        k               kap                     kAp

        g               goal                    go:l (only foreign/loan-words)
The fricatives are f v s z x (G) h:
        f               fel                     fEl

        v               vel                     vEl

        s               sein                    sEin

        z               zijn                    zEin

        x               toch                    tOx

        G               goed                    Gut (also xut)

        h               hand                    hAnt

        Z               bagage                  bAga:Z(@)

        S               show                    So:u
The sonorants (nasals, liquids and glides) are m n N l r w j:
        m               met                     mEt

        n               net                     nEt

        N               bang                    bAN

        l               land                    lAnt

        r               rand                    rAnt

        w               wit                     wIt

        j               ja                      ja:
The Dutch vowels fall into two classes, "checked" (not occurring in a stressed syllable without a following consonant) and "free".

The checked vowels aew I E A O Y @:

        I               pit                     pIt

        E               pet                     pEt

        A               pat                     pAt

        O               pot                     pOt

        Y               put                     pYt

        @               gemakkelijk             G@"mAk@l@k
The free vowels comprise four monophthongs i y u a:, three "potential diphthongs" e: 2: o:, and three "essential diphthongs" Ei 9y Au, exemplified as follows:
        i               vier                    vir

        y               vuur                    vyr

        u               voer                    vur

        a:              naam                    na:m

        e:              veer                    ve:r

        2:              deur                    d2:r

        o:              voor                    vo:r

        Ei              fijn                    fEin

        9y              huis                    h9ys

        Au              goud                    xAut
There are also six vowel sequences which are sometimes described as diphthongs:
        a:i             draai                   "dra:i

        o:i             mooi                    "mo:i

        ui              roeiboot                "ruibo:t

        iu              nieuw                   "niu

        yu              duw                     "dyu

        e:u             sneeuw                  "sne:u
Several marginal vowel phonemes are only found in loanwords:
        E:              cr?me                   krE:m

        9:              freule                  fr9:l@

        O:              roze                    rO:z@

UCL Phonetics and Linguistics home page, University College London home page.

Maintained by J.C. Wells. Created 1995 09 19. Last modified 1996 03 18 

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