* Danish

The plosives are p b t d k g:
        Symbol          Word                    Transcription

        p               pande                   "pan@

        b               bande                   "ban@

        t               tand                    tan?

        d               dan                     dan?

        k               kalde                   "kal@

        g               galde                   "gal@
The fricatives are f s:
        f               finde                   "fen@

        s               stand                   sdan?
The approximants are v D j h:
        v               vinde                   "ven@

        D               bide                    "bi:D@

        j               Jul                     ju:?l

        h               hest                    hEsd
The nasals are m n N:
        m               mile                    "mi:l@

        n               ny                      ny?

        N               lunge                   "loN@
The liquids are l R:
        l               land                    lan?

        R               ride                    "Ri:D@
St?d is symbolised by ? and may be found in syllables containing a long stressed vowel, or a short stressed vowel, or a short stressed vowel followed by a voiced consonant, e.g. p{u: - pE:?u, peu: - pEu?

Pure Vowels
The vowel system chosen for broad phonetic transcription is i e E a A y 2 9 u o O @, with all vowels except @ occurring with a length distinction (i: e: E: {: A: y: 2: 9: u: o: O:). The unrounded front vowels are exemplified in the following:

        Symbol          Word                    Transcription

        i:              mile                    "mi:l@

        i               ville                   "vil@

        e:              mele                    "me:l@

        e               visse                   "ves@

        E:              m?le                    "mE:l@

        E               t?kke                   "tEk@

        {:              male                    "m{:l@

        a               malle                   "mal@
The central vowels are:
        A:              parken                  "pA:g=n

        A               pakken                  "pAg=n

        @               unstressed              final e
The rounded front vowels are:
        y:              hyle                    "hy:l@

        y               hylde                   "hyl@

        2:              k?le                    "k2:l@

        2               k?lle                   "k2l@

        9:              h?ne                    "h9:n@

        9               h?nse                   "h9ns@
The back vowels are:
        u:              kule                    "ku:l@

        u               kulde                   "kul@

        o:              fole                    "fo:l@

        o               foto                    "fodo

        O:              m?ne                    "mO:n@

        O               munde                   "mOn@

        Q:              k?re                    "kQ:@

        Q               kors                    kQs
The falling diphthongs may be most economically analysed phonemically as vowel plus j,v, or r, but for broad phonetic representation within SAMPA they are analysed as vowel plus i, u or Q, for example:
        Ai              sejle                   "sAil@

        Qi              s?jle                   "sQil@

        ui              huje                    "hui@ (extremely rare)

        i:i             pige                    "pi:i@

        e:i             ege                     "e:i@ conservative pronunciation

        E:i             l?ge                    "lE:i@

        iu              ivrig                   "iuRi

        eu              peber                   "peu@R

        Eu              evne                    "Eun@

        i:u             hive                    "hi:u

        e:u             leve                    "le:u

        E:u             h?ve                    "hE:u

        au              havn                    hau?n

        yu              syv                     syu

        2u              d?vstum                 "d2usdom

        9u              st?vle                  "sd9ul@

        iQ              kirke                   "kiQk@

        EQ              b?r                     bEQ

        9Q              sm?r                    sm9Q

 UCL Phonetics and Linguistics home page, University College London home page.

Maintained by J.C. Wells. Created 1995 09 19, last modified 1996 03 18

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